Rationale for EBR in BPS Schools Page

  • Evidence Based Reasoning is an inclusive phrase for all thinking regarding the use of proof to substantiate, confirm, verify, or corroborate a claim (premise/thesis/conjecture/proposition). 

    Ideas are the basis of academic discourse and human interaction. Reasoning, here meant as thinking, is used as an umbrella term for all cognitive work necessary for collecting and processing information connected to ideas and academic discourse. Reasoning is necessary for all discourse and argumentation (written and oral) to occur. Within the framework of Argumentation, thinkers must include: 1) a Claim (also known as Thesis, Conjecture, or Premise, depending on the discipline involved), as well as, 2) Evidence (facts: quotes from text, observations of phenomena, low-inference descriptors of aural and visual experiences), and, 3) Reasoning, which may be an explanation of/for the Evidence as well as how the Evidence relates to the Claim. The Reasoning in the Argumentation framework is the “because” behind the Evidence.


    MCF 2011 and CCSS ELA Writing Anchor Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    MCF 2011 Writing in History, Science, and Technology (WHST) Anchor Standard 1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. *WHST is integrated into the ELA standards in grades K to 5, for grades 6 to 12, WHST standards can be found on page 77.

    Matrix of the Science and Engineering Practices (from NGSS), Practice 7: Engaging in Argument from Evidence.

    MCF 2011 Standards for Mathematical Practice, Practice Standard 3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

    National Core Arts Standards, Responding: Anchor Standard 7: Perceive and analyze artistic work; Anchor Standard 8: Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work; Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.

    World Languages Standards for Writing (Arabic as representative of all languages): Writers at the Superior level demonstrate the ability to explain complex matters, and to present and support opinions by developing cogent arguments and hypotheses.

    Target Audience  

    Grade Levels

    EBR is required in ALL grades Kindergarten to 12.


    EBR is inclusive of ALL contents: Science, Math, ELA, Social Studies/History, Technology, the Arts, World Languages. 

    Additional Insight

    In addition to the above stated definition, standards, and target audience, it is important to note the following from the CCSS ELA Appendix A (page 25): “The value of effective argument extends well beyond the classroom or workplace, however. As Richard Fulkerson (1996) puts it in Teaching the Argument in Writing, the proper context for thinking about argument is one ‘in which the goal is not victory but a good decision, one in which all arguers are at risk of needing to alter their views, one in which a participant takes seriously and fairly the views different from his or her own’ (pp. 16–17). Such capacities are broadly important for the literate, educated person living in the diverse, information-rich environment of the twenty-first century.”